G.M.COMPLEX, GM Palya Main Rd, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560075

+91 99454 88546

+91 99454 88546

Mouth (Oral Cavity & Oropharynx)

Mouth (Oral Cavity & Oropharynx)

Commonly seen disorders include:
  • Pharyngitis:Inflammation of the throat often caused by viral or bacterial infections, leading to soreness, pain, and difficulty swallowing.

  • Tonsillitis:Infection or inflammation of the tonsils, resulting in throat pain, difficulty swallowing, and sometimes fever.

  • Oral Thrush: Fungal infection caused by Candida leading to white lesions in the mouth.

  • Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR): Acid reflux reaching the throat, causing irritation and inflammation.

  • Salivary Gland Disorders: Conditions like salivary gland stones or infections affecting glands such as the parotid and submandibular glands.

  • Oral Ulcers:Painful sores in the mouth, including canker sores or cold sores.

  • Halitosis (Bad Breath): Persistent foul-smelling breath often due to oral hygiene issues or underlying conditions.

  • Oral Allergic Reactions: Adverse reactions in the mouth to certain foods, medications, or other allergens.

  • Tongue Tie (Ankyloglossia): A congenital condition where the tongue's movement is restricted due to an unusually short frenulum.

  • Tonsilloliths (Tonsil Stones): Calcified deposits in the tonsils causing bad breath and discomfort.

  • Ludwig's Angina: Serious bacterial infection causing swelling and pain in the floor of the mouth and neck.

  • Oral Dysplasia: Abnormal cells in the mouth that could be a precursor to oral cancer.

  • Sialadenitis:Inflammation of the salivary glands, usually due to bacterial infection.

  • Peritonsillar Abscess:Collection of pus near the tonsils, causing severe throat pain and difficulty swallowing.

  • Precancerous lesions : Like oral leukoplakia / oral submucous fibrosis

  • Oral Cancer:Cancerous growth in the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, and palate.

These conditions vary in severity and may require different diagnostic and treatment approaches, often involving a multidisciplinary approach for comprehensive care.


Nasal polyps are associated with irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the lining of your nasal passages and sinuses that lasts more than 12 weeks (chronic sinusitis).

However, it’s possible to have chronic sinusitis without nasal polyps.

Nasal polyps themselves are soft and lack sensation, so if they’re small, you may not be aware you have them. Multiple growths or a large polyp may block your nasal passages and sinuses.

Common signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps include:

  • A runny nose
  • Persistent Stuffiness
  • Postnasal Drip
  • Decreased or absent sense of smell
  • Loss of sense of taste
  • Facial pain or headache
  • Pain in your upper teeth
  • A sense of pressure over your forehead and face
  • Snoring
  • Frequent Nosebleeds

Risk Factors

Any condition that triggers long-term irritation and swelling (inflammation) in your nasal passages or sinuses, such as infections or allergies, may increase your risk of developing nasal polyps.

Conditions often associated with nasal polyps include:

  • Asthma, a disease that causes the airway to swell (inflame) and narrow
  • Aspirin sensitivity
  • Allergic fungal sinusitis, an allergy to airborne fungi
  • Cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that results in abnormally thick, sticky fluids in the body, including thick mucus from nasal and sinus linings
  • Churg-Strauss syndrome (eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis), a rare disease that causes the inflammation of blood vessels
  • Vitamin D deficiency, which occurs when your body doesn’t have enough vitamin D

Your family history also may play a role. There’s some evidence that certain genetic variations associated with immune system function make you more likely to develop nasal polyps.

Nasal polyps can cause complications because they block normal airflow and fluid drainage, and also because of the long-term irritation and swelling (inflammation) underlying their development.

Potential complications include:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea: This is a potentially serious condition in which you stop and start breathing frequently during sleep.
  • Asthma Flare-Ups: Chronic sinusitis can worsen asthma.
  • Sinus Infections: Nasal polyps can make you more susceptible to sinus infections that recur often.